- Makoto Usami (Division of Pharmacology, National Institute of Health Sciences / firstname.lastname@example.org)
1) Division of Pharmacology, National Institute of Health Sciences , 2) School of Veterinary Medicine, Azabu University , 3) School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Toho University , 4) Division of Medical Devices, National Institute of Health Sciences , 5) Laboratory of Animal Reproduction, United Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Gifu University
Protein expression changes were examined in day 10.5 rat embryos cultured for 24 hr in the presence of valproic acid (VPA), using two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Exposure to VPA at an embryotoxic concentration of 1.2 mM resulted in quantitative changes in many embryonic protein spots (22 decreased and 29 increased). For the increased protein spots, 10 proteins were identified, including alpha-fetoprotein, phosphorylated cofilin-1, and serum albumin. These proteins are candidate protein biomarkers that may be involved in embryotoxic mechanisms.